Quick Review: Pharmacy, 13e. Joyce A. Generali, Christine A. Berger. Go to Review Questions. Search Textbook Review Tips. The e-chapter logo indicates a. PDF | On Dec 15, , Julie J Wilkinson and others published Quick Review Pharmacy. Quick Review Pharmacy, 13th edition, offers practice examination questions to aid The Clinical Pharmacy chapter includes groups of questions based on a.
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Appleton & Lange's review of pharmacy / Gary D. Hall, Barry S. Reissth ed. p.; cm. Includes .. limiting response: namely, the quick memorization of answers. sented in outline form for easy use. The Comprehensive. Pharmacy Review may be used as a quick review (or pre- view) of essential topics by. Comprehensive Pharmacy Review 8th Edition - Ebook download as PDF File . pdf), Text File .txt) or Pharmacy Review may be used as a quick review (or pre-.
Am J Pharm Educ. Quick Review Pharmacy. New York: McGraw Hill. Tel: Fax: E-mail: ude.
The book provides an efficient approach to preparing for licensure through a question and answer format. There are 6 major chapters made up entirely of multiple-choice questions. The answers to the questions are given at the end of each chapter with a brief 1- or 2-sentence explanation.
The Clinical Pharmacy chapter includes groups of questions based on a patient's medication profile or a prescription order. In addition, a database for storing all prescriptions that were counted on the device. This machine was a third generation step in the evolution of pharmacy automated devices.
Later models held pre-counted containers of commonly-prescribed medications. Tablets in a blister pack In the EU member states legislation was introduced in which had a major effect on UK Pharmacy operations.
It effectively prohibited the use of tablet counters for counting and dispensing bulk packaged tablets. Both usage and sales of the machines in the UK declined rapidly as a result of the introduction of blister packaging for medicines. During this timeframe, counting technologies, robotics, workflow management software, and interactive voice recognition IVR systems for retail both chain and independent , outpatient, government, and closed-door pharmacies mail order and central fill were all introduced.
Additionally, the concept of scalability - of migrating from an entry-level product to the next level of automation e. Technological changes and design improvements[ edit ] Constant developments in technology make the dispensing of prescription medications safer, more accurate and more efficient. Computer interfaced model counter In America, in , "next-generation" counting and verification systems were introduced. Based on the counting technology employed in preceding models, later machines included the ability to help the pharmacy operate more effectively.
Equipped with a new computer interface to a pharmacy management system, with workflow and inventory software. It also included "checks and balances" to ensure the technician and pharmacist were dispensing the correct medication for each patient.
Hands-free automated model counter In America, in , further advanced counters were designed that included the ability to dispense hands-free — a feature that many operators had desired. This allowed pharmacies to automate their most commonly dispensed medications via calibrated cassettes. Another new model doubled that throughput via an enclosed robotic mechanism.
Robotics had been employed in pharmacies since the mids, but later machines dispense and label filled patient vials in a comparatively tiny space about nine square feet of floor space. These newer technologies allowed pharmacy staff to confidently dispense hundreds of prescriptions per day and still be able to manage the many functions of a busy community pharmacy.
Other pharmacy-dispensing concerns besides counting[ edit ] Explaining medication usage to the patient The primary purpose of a tablet counter also known as a pill counter or drug counter is to accurately count prescription medications in tablet or capsule form to aid the requirement for patient medication safety, to increase efficiency and reduce costs for the typical pharmacy.
Newer versions of this counting device include advanced software to continue to improve safety for the patient who is receiving the prescription, ensuring that the pharmacy staff dispense the right medication at correct dosage strength for the right patient. A wealth of research has been conducted regarding the prevalence of medication errors and the ability of technology to decrease or eliminate such errors.
A trend in pharmacy is to place a greater reliance on technology and pharmacy automation to minimize the chance of human error and speed up the process of dispensing. Pharmacy management generally sees technology as a solution to industry challenges like staffing shortages, prescription volume increases, long and hectic work hours and complicated insurance reimbursement procedures. Instead of adding more staff, pharmacies employ advanced technologies that help to handle an ever-escalating number of prescriptions, while making dispensing safer and more precise.
Cross-contamination[ edit ] Perhaps the most controversial debate surrounding the use of pharmacy automated tablet counters is the impact of cross-contamination.
Automated tablet-counting machines sometimes better known as "pill counters" are designed to sort, count, and dispense drugs at high speeds for quick counting transactions.
When more than one drug is exposed to the same surface, leaving seemingly unnoticeable traces of residues, the issue of cross-contamination arises.
While one tablet is unlikely to leave enough residues to cause harm to a future patient, the risk of contamination increases sevenfold as the machine processes thousands of varying pills throughout the course of a day. A typical pharmacy may on average process under scripts per day, while other larger dispensaries can accommodate a few hundred scripts in that amount of time. Thoroughly cleaning pharmacy automated tablet counters is recommended to prevent the chance of cross-contamination.
This method is widely preached by manufacturers of these machines, but is not always easily followed. Performing an efficient cleaning of an automated tablet counter significantly increases the amount of time spent on counts by users. Many critics argue that these problems can easily be prevented by taking the proper precautions and following all cleaning procedures, but the increase in time spent makes it hard to justify such an investment.
Products that are used in retail, mail order, hospital outpatient and specialty pharmacies as well as industrial settings such as manufacturing and component factories. These advanced systems will continue to provide accurate counting without the need for adjustment or calibration when counting in different production environments. Pictured here is a modern remote controlled tablet hopper mechanism for use with bulk packaged individual tablets or capsules.