Engineering Psychology and Human Performance. Christopher D. Wickens. University of I/Iinois at Urbana-Champaign and A/ionSciences. Justin Hollands. PDF | Resente werke van 'n hoë standaard in die vakgebied Ergonomika of soos dit in die V.S.A bekend staan as Human Factors, of Engineering Psychology as. Engineering psychology and human performance! Christopher ovmorandacess.cfs, Justin G. Hollands. 3 ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index.
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Christopher D. Wickens Justin 6. Hollands Engineering Psychology and Human Performance THIRD EDITION CHRISTOPHER D. WICKENS University of. Read here ovmorandacess.cf?book= Read [PDF] Download Engineering Psychology and Human Performance. Download Download Engineering Psychology and Human Performance | PDF books PDF Online Download Here.
The chapters generally correspond to the flow of information as it is processed by a human being—from the senses, through the brain, to action—and are less clearly organized from the perspective of different system components or engineering concerns, such as displays, illumination, controls, computers, and keyboards.
Furthermore, although the following pages contain recommendations for certain system design principles, many of these are based only on laboratory research and theory; they have not been tested in real- world systems.
It is our firm belief that a solid grasp of theory will provide a strong base from which the specific principles of good human factors can be more readily derived. Our intended audience, therefore, is 1 the student in psychology, who will begin to recognize the rele- vance to many areas in the real-world applications of the theoretical principles of psychol- ogy that he or she may have encountered in other courses; 2 the engineering student, who, while learning to design and build systems with which humans interact, will come to ap- preciate not only the nature of human limitations—the essence of human factors— but also xiii xlv Preface the theoretical principles of human performance and information processing underlying them; and 3 the actual practitioner in engineering psychology, human performance, and human factors engineering, who can understand the close cooperation that should exist between principles and theories of psychology and issues in system design.
The 13 chapters of the book span a wide range of human performance topics. Following the introduction in Chapter 1, in which engineering psychology is put into the broader framework of human factors and system design, Chapters 2 through 8 deal with perception, attention, cognition both spatial and verbal , memory, learning, and decision making, emphasizing the potential applications of these areas of cognitive psy- chology.
Chapters 9 through 12 cover the selection and execution of control actions, time-sharing, error, and stress, thereby addressing areas that are more traditionally as- sociated with the engineering field.
Finally, Chapter 13 is systems-oriented, discussing process control, complex systems and automation. This chapter shows how many of the principles explained in earlier chapters are pertinent to one specific application of rapidly growing importance.
Although the 13 chapters are interrelated just as are the components of human in- formation processing , we have constructed them in such a way that any chapter may be deleted from a course syllabus and still leave a coherent body.
Thus, for example, a course on applied cognitive psychology might include Chapters 1 through 8, and an- other emphasizing more strictly engineering applications might include Chapters 1,2, 4, 5,6, 9,10,11,12, and In addition to incorporating new experiments and studies where appropriate, we have made a number of changes in the third edition that set it apart from the second. First, most prominently, we have added a chapter, reflecting the growth of computer- based graphics systems, and their relevance for human performance issues in virtual en- vironments and data visualization.
Second, our chapters on decision making and automation and process control have been substantially rewritten, reflecting many of the changes in knowledge that our field has experienced since when the second edi- tion was written. Third, throughout other chapters, substantial sections have been added describing important research developments in expertise, situation awareness, display integration, multimedia, the learning process and long term memory representation, planning and problem solving, voice control, and stress models.
In any project of this kind, one is indebted to numerous people for their assistance. For both of us the list includes several colleagues who have read and commented on various chapters, provided feedback on the second edition, and have stimulated our thinking.
In ad- dition to all acknowledgments in the first two editions the text of which, of course, remains very much at the core of the current book , we would like to single out the extensive and helpful feedback on the second edition offered by Doug Gillan, Melody Carswell, Joe Goldberg, and Dan Fisk.
We also thank countless students who, in one form or another, of- fered feedback regarding either good or bad elements of the second edition.
Christopher Wickens would like to acknowledge the contributions of faculty col- leagues - in particular, Art Kramer and Gary Bradshaw who provided feedback on early drafts of chapters.
He also acknowledges the contributions of four specific individuals who contributed to the development of his interest in engineering psychology: Delos Wickens, stimulated an early interest in experimental psychology; Dick Pew provided an introduction to academic research in engineering psychology and human performance; Preface xv Stan Roscoe pointed out the importance of good research applications to system design; and Emanuel Donchin continues to emphasize the importance of solid theoretical and empirical research.
Also, it is impossible to do justice in crediting Karen Ayers' and Mary Welborn's contributions to this book. Without their hours of dedication at the word processor of a sometimes hostile computer, the project never would have succeeded.
Chris's wife, Linda, was supportive during the hours of preparation for all three editions. Material that is rehearsed in working memory can get access to long-term memory — learning takes place. Flow of information can be initiated at any point and is continuous.
Radiologist examining X-Rays of referred cancer patient. For what ever reasons: When signal and noise have similar characteristics Operator deficiencies training, fatigue, stress Chances probability of false alarms or misses increases! The probability of missing an event is directly related to the event frequency and uncertainty.
Correlation of events amongst channels. As expertise develops, mental models become refined as do the sampling strategies.
If the number of channels increases too much, people fail to take advantage of the preview — because of the heavy memory load. Fixation on feedback on an event can be a substantial waste of visual attention. However, it is sometimes very difficult to narrow the focus of attention when needed and shut out unwanted inputs.
This failure occurs when divided attention becomes mandatory rather than optional. Knowledge of where one is on the display proximity, similarity, common fate, good continuation, closure will allow an accurate guess of where others are located. Top display likely has reduced: Attentional demands Risk for missed event 37 The Proximity Compatibility Principle Display Proximity — how close together two display components are in spatial terms Processing Proximity — the extent to which two information sources are used within the same task compare or integrate.
It is even more likely when objects are integrated a dimensions of a single object. Emergent features colour coding,symmetry can help in this respect.
Mentale Integration von Einzelinformationen Kognition bspw. Solche Merkmale sind z. Andererseits sind die einzelnen Daten, falls erforderlich, auch immer noch einzeln ablesbar.