Basic mechanical engineering by benjamin pdf

 
    Contents
  1. KTU Basics of Mechanical Engineering Notes and PPT
  2. References books balachandran basic mechanical
  3. Basic Mechanical Engineering
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Basic Mechanical Engineering By Benjamin Pdf

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Here ports are provided in place of valves. The cylinder is connected to a closed crankcase.

During the upward stroke of the piston, the air in the cylinder is compressed. At the same time fresh air enters the crankcase through the air inlet port. I Towards the end of this stroke fuel is introduced in the form of fine spray by the fuel injector and due to the high pressure and temperature of the air, the fuel starts burning. The piston then travels downwards due to the expansion of the gases fig II and near the end of this stroke the piston uncovers the exhaust port and burnt gases escape through this port.

The transfer port is then uncovered fig. III and the compressed air from the crankcase flows into the cylinder. The incoming fresh air helps to move the burnt gases from the engine cylinder. Four stroke diesel engine In four stroke cycle engine one cycle of operation is completed in four strokes of the piston i. The various strokes of a four stroke diesel engine are detailed below. Refer PV diagram. The inlet valve opens and air at atmospheric pressure is drawn into the engine cylinder.

The exhaust valve remains closed. This operation is represented by the line in PV diagram. Compression stroke In this stroke the piston moves towards TDC and compresses the enclosed air to high temperature and pressure.

This operation is represented by line in PV diagram. Both the inlet and exhaust valves remain closed during this stroke. Expansion or working stroke Towards the end of compression stroke a metered quantity of fuel is injected into the hot compressed air in the form of fine spray by means of a fuel injector. The fuel starts burning, theoretically, at constant pressure and pushes the piston from TDC. This is shown by line in PV diagram.

At point 3, fuel supply is cut off. The high pressure gas in the cylinder expand up to point 4, doing work on the piston. The inlet and exhaust valves remain closed during this stroke. At the end of this stroke the exhaust valve opens. During this stroke the inlet valve remains closed.

This stroke is represented by the line in PV diagram. During this stroke the exhaust valve remains opened and the inlet valve remains closed.

By this one cycle is completed. These engines work based on either four stroke or two stroke cycle. Otto cycle Constant volume cycle In this cycle, heat is supplied at constant volume. A homogeneous mixture of air and petrol is supplied to the engine cylinder during the suction stroke. A carburettor provides a mixture of petrol and air in the required proportion. The fuel air mixture charge gets compressed during the compression stroke At the end of this stroke, fuel is ignited and combustion occurs at constant volume.

The gas expands and moves the piston downwards, during work. Four stroke petrol engines The various strokes of a four stroke petrol engine are detailed below. The inlet valve opens and the fuel air mixture is sucked into the engine cylinder. The exhaust valve remains closed throughout this stroke. This is represented by the line in PV diagram. Just before the end of this stroke, the spark plug initiates a spark which ignites the mixture and combustion takes place at constant volume line in fig PV diagram.

Both the inlet and exhaust valves remain closed throughout this stroke. This expansion process is shown by the line in PV diagram.

Both the valves remain closed during this stroke. Two stroke petrol engine In two stroke petrol engine, one cycle of operation is completed in two strokes of the piston, in one revolution of the crankshaft by eliminating separate suction and exhaust strokes.

Working principle of two stroke petrol engine Fig 2. During the upward stroke of the piston, the air fuel mixture in the cylinder is compressed. At the same time fresh air fuel mixture enters the crankcase through the inlet port. The piston then travels downwards due to the expansion of the gases fig.

The transfer port is then uncovered fig 2 III and the compressed air fuel mixture from the crankcase flow into the cylinder. The incoming fresh air fuel mixture helps to move the burnt gases from the engine cylinder.

Refer fig. In a two stroke petrol engine the operations are the same as that for a two stroke diesel engine with some difference. In this engine, fuel air mixture is admitted into the crank case and compressed. A carburettor is used for mixing the fuel and air in the correct proportion.

For the ignition of the fuel air mixture at the end of compression in the engine cylinder, a spark plug is provided. In this case, combustion process is assumed to take place at constant volume. Comparison of SI and CI engines 1. Working cycle: The SI engine, in general, works based on Otto cycle, while the CI engine, in general, works based on diesel cycle. Fuel: A highly volatile fuel such as petrol is used in SI engine while non-volatile fuel such as diesel is used in CI engines.

Method of fuel ignition: In most of SI engines, the fuel and air are introduced into the engine cylinder as a gaseous mixture while in CI engines, the fuel is directly introduced into the cylinder in the form of fine spray.

Mixing of fuel and air takes place inside the cylinder. Method of fuel ignition: The SI engine requires a spark to initiate combustion while CI engine utilises the condition of high temperature and pressure, produced by the compression of air in the cylinder, to initiate combustion when fuel is injected.

Fuel economy: CI engines have better fuel economy at all operating conditions. Compression ratio: Compression ratio of SI engines range from 6 to 10, where as that of CI engines range from 16 to The higher compression ratio of CI engines result in higher thermal efficiency and hence a greater power output for the same amount of fuel consumed.

Weight: Because of the higher compression ratio and higher pressure, CI engines require stronger engine parts and hence are heavier 8. Maintenance costs: The maintenance costs of the two types of engines are generally about the same, with CI engine costs slightly higher.

Comparison of two stroke and four stroke cycle engines 1 In a two stroke engine, there is one working stroke for every revolution of the crank shaft whereas in a four stroke engine there is only one power stroke for two revolutions of the crank shaft. Hence, theoretically, the power developed in two stroke engine will be double that of a four stroke engine of the same dimensions However in practice, only about 30 percent extra power is developed.

That is, in order to produce the same of power, a two stroke cycle engine will be of less weight and occupies less space. The maintenance of the engine will also be easy. The mechanical efficiency will be higher. Due to this, the fresh charge gets diluted with exhaust gases and the thermal efficiency decreases.

Also there is possibility of the fresh charge escaping with the exhaust. This will increase the fuel consumption. Carburation Function of the fuel supply system is to store the fuel required for the engine in a tank and to supply it to the cylinder for combustion.

Carburetor is considered as the heart of the petrol engine. It is a device for atomizing and vapourizing the volatile liquid fuel petrol and mixing it with air. It is attached to the intake manifold connected with the engine cylinder. In the S. The process of vapourizing the fuel petrol and mixing it with air outside the cylinder in the S.

With less air, some portion of the fuel will remain unburnt due to the insufficient supply of oxygen while with excess air, the rate of burning will be slower.

For running at higher speeds and for starting the engine, we need rich air fuel mixture. For this, the carburetor regulates the throttle valve using accelerator. Provision is made for easy starting choke in cold weather.

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KTU Basics of Mechanical Engineering Notes and PPT

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List the advantages and disadvantages of fluid power. The question and its interconnected framework are encompassed with different gadgets that can get to be section focuses or focuses of assaults. These engines work based on either four stroke or two stroke cycle. Otto cycle Constant volume cycle In this cycle, heat is supplied at constant volume. A homogeneous mixture of air and petrol is supplied to the engine cylinder during the suction stroke. A carburettor provides a mixture of petrol and air in the required proportion.

The fuel air mixture charge gets compressed during the compression stroke At the end of this stroke, fuel is ignited and combustion occurs at constant volume. The gas expands and moves the piston downwards, during work. Working of four stroke petrol engine. The inlet valve opens and the fuel air mixture is sucked into the engine cylinder. The exhaust valve remains closed throughout this stroke. This is represented by the line in PV diagram.

Just before the end of this stroke, the spark plug initiates a spark which ignites the mixture and combustion takes place at constant volume line in fig PV diagram. Both the inlet and exhaust valves remain closed throughout this stroke. This expansion process is shown by the line in PV diagram. Both the valves remain closed during this stroke. In two stroke petrol engine, one cycle of operation is completed in two strokes of the piston, in one revolution of the crankshaft by eliminating separate suction and exhaust strokes.

Working principle of two stroke petrol engine Fig 2. During the upward stroke of the piston, the air fuel mixture in the cylinder is compressed. At the same time fresh air fuel mixture enters the crankcase through the inlet port. The piston then travels downwards due to the expansion of the gases fig. The transfer port is then uncovered fig 2 III and the compressed air fuel mixture from the crankcase flow into the cylinder.

The incoming fresh air fuel mixture helps to move the burnt gases from the engine cylinder. In a two stroke petrol engine the operations are the same as that for a two stroke diesel engine with some difference.

In this engine, fuel air mixture is admitted into the crank case and compressed. A carburettor is used for mixing the fuel and air in the correct proportion. For the ignition of the fuel air mixture at the end of compression in the engine cylinder, a spark plug is provided. In this case, combustion process is assumed to take place at constant volume. Comparison of SI and CI engines 1. Working cycle: The SI engine, in general, works based on Otto cycle, while the CI engine, in general, works based on diesel cycle.

A highly volatile fuel such as petrol is used in SI engine while non-volatile fuel such as diesel is used in CI engines. Method of fuel ignition: In most of SI engines, the fuel and air are introduced into the engine cylinder as a gaseous mixture while in CI engines, the fuel is directly introduced into the cylinder in the form of fine spray. Mixing of fuel and air takes place inside the cylinder.

The SI engine requires a spark to initiate combustion while CI engine utilises the condition of high temperature and pressure, produced by the compression of air in the cylinder, to initiate combustion when fuel is injected. Fuel economy: CI engines have better fuel economy at all operating conditions. Compression ratio: Compression ratio of SI engines range from 6 to 10, where as that of CI engines range from 16 to The higher compression ratio of CI engines result in higher thermal efficiency and hence a greater power output for the same amount of fuel consumed.

Because of the higher compression ratio and higher pressure, CI engines require stronger engine parts and hence are heavier 8. Initial cost: Initial cost of a SI engine is less than a comparable CI machine.

Maintenance costs: The maintenance costs of the two types of engines are generally about the same, with CI engine costs slightly higher. Comparison of two stroke and four stroke cycle engines 1 In a two stroke engine, there is one working stroke for every revolution of the crank shaft whereas in a four stroke engine there is only one power stroke for two revolutions of the crank shaft. Hence, theoretically, the power developed in two stroke engine will be double that of a four stroke engine of the same dimensions However in practice, only about 30 percent extra power is developed.

That is, in order to produce the same of power, a two stroke cycle engine will be of less weight and occupies less space. The maintenance of the engine will also be easy. The mechanical efficiency will be higher.

Due to this, the fresh charge gets diluted with exhaust gases and the thermal efficiency decreases. Also there is possibility of the fresh charge escaping with the exhaust. This will increase the fuel consumption. Carburation Function of the fuel supply system is to store the fuel required for the engine in a tank and to supply it to the cylinder for combustion. Carburetor is considered as the heart of the petrol engine. It is a device for atomizing and vapourizing the volatile liquid fuel petrol and mixing it with air.

It is attached to the intake manifold connected with the engine cylinder. In the S. The process of vapourizing the fuel petrol and mixing it with air outside the cylinder in the S. With less air, some portion of the fuel will remain unburnt due to the insufficient supply of oxygen while with excess air, the rate of burning will be slower.

For running at higher speeds and for starting the engine, we need rich air fuel mixture. For this, the carburetor regulates the throttle valve using accelerator.

Provision is made for easy starting choke in cold weather. Carburetor is one chamber where petrol and air was mixed in a fixed ratio and then sent to cylinders to burn it to produce power. This system is purely a mechanical machine with little or no intelligence. It was not very efficient in burning petrol, it will burn more petrol than needed at times and will produce more pollution.

It is the latest state-of-theart technology for diesel engines and suits passenger cars as well as commercial vehicles. One of the main reasons for the increasing popularity of CRDI is its performance and fuel economy. A CRDI engine is based on direct injection technology and has common rails i.

The common rail connects all the injectors and supply fuel at a constant high pressure. The high pressure in the common rail ensures that upon injection, the fuel atomises and mixes consistently with the air, thereby leaving minimal unburnt fuel. In a CRDI engine, fuel quantity, engine pressure and timing of fuel injection are controlled electronically.

The onboard computer makes sure that the fuel is injected at the precise moment. This significantly improves engine efficiency and reduces noise and vibrations as compared to the conventional diesel engines. Common rail direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct fuel injection system for petrol and diesel engines. On diesel engines, it features a high-pressure over 1, bar.

Fuel injection is a system for mixing fuel with air in an internal combustion engine. Carburetors were the predominant method used to mix fuel in petrol engines before the widespread use of fuel injection. The primary difference between carburetors and fuel injection is that fuel injection atomizes the fuel by forcibly pumping it through a small nozzle under high pressure, while a carburetor relies on low pressure created by intake air rushing through it to add the fuel to the airstream.

Multi-point fuel injection MPFI Multi-point fuel injection injects fuel into the intake port just before the cylinder's intake valve, in each cylinder, rather than a common point as in carburator. A Petrol cars engine usually has four or more cylinders. So in case of an MPFI engine, there is one fuel injector installed near each cylinder, that is why they call it Multi-point more than one points Fuel Injection. In MPFI system, each cylinder has one injector which makes it multi-point.

Each of these Injectors are controlled by one central computer. This computer is a small micro-processor, which keeps telling each Injector about how much petrol and at what time it needs to inject near the cylinder so that only the required amount of petrol goes into the cylinder at the right moment.

So the working of MPFI is similar to Carburetor, but in an improved way, because now each cylinder is treated independently unlike Carburetor. MPFI systems are controlled by a computer which does lots of calculations before deciding what amount of petrol will go into what cylinder at a particular point in time.

It makes that decision based on the inputs it reads. For the Inputs, the microprocessor or cars computer reads a number of sensors. Through these sensors, the microprocessor knows the temperature of the Engine, the Speed of the Engine, it knows the load on the Engine, it knows how hard you have pressed the accelerator, it knows whether the Engine is idling at a traffic signal or it is actually running the car, it knows the air-pressure near the cylinders, it knows the amount of oxygen coming out of the exhaust pipe.

Based on all these inputs from the sensors, the computer in the MPFI system decides what amount of fuel to inject. Thus it makes it fuel efficient as it knows what amount of petrol should go in. To make things more interesting, the system also learns from the drivers driving habits.

Modern cars computers have memory, which will remember your driving style and will behave in a way so that you get the desired power output from engine based on your driving style. Power plant is the place where electricity produced using some conventional or nonconventional energy sources. Based on the source of energy power plants are classified into different types. See table. Power plant Thermal power plant Hydel power plant nuclear power plant Gas turbine power plant Diesel engine power plant.

Thermal or steam power plants The fuel used in thermal power plant is coal. By burning this coal steam produced in the boiler. Steam is utilised to drive the steam turbine which are coupled directly to the electric generator.

Fig below shows the layout of modern thermal power plant. Coal is stored in the coal storage yard from which we are transferring coal to boiler for producing steam. Ash produced after burning coal is transferred to ash storage yard.

The steam from the boiler is passed through turbine. At this stage steam will be at superheated stage steam above c the steam from the turbine is then passed through the condenser. Here steam is condensed to water. This condensed water again pumps back to the boiler using a pump. Cooling water is circulated around the condenser for cooling The flue gases smoke and other gases from the boiler is initially passed through an economizer in which heat energy of flue gas utilised for preheat the water.

Also this flue gas passes through air pre heater for heating the supply air to the boiler for combustion oxygen is required. After that flue gas is going out through chimney.

Initially this intake air from atmosphere, is preheating to improve the efficiency of combustion process and intake water also pre heating to improve the efficiency of boiler. Economiser is equipment used to.

Diesel engine power plant The diesel burns inside the engine and the combustion process causes rotational mechanical energy that turns the engine shaft and drives the alternator. The alternator in turn, converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Usually diesel plants in the range of 2 to 50 MW capacities are used. Components of diesel power plant Engine: Air supply system: Air is drawn through an air filter and supplied to the engine.

Air filters required for removing dust and impurities. A system provide for supplying compressed air which used to start the engine. Exhaust system: After combustion smoke and burned particles removed from engine through this exhaust system. This tank mainly located outside the power plant.

Fuel injector is used to inject the required amount of fuel into the cylinder. Cooling and lubrication: In small engine air cooling is sufficient. But in large engine water or oil cooling system is employed.

Water the water is circulated through lubricating oil cooler and through water jackets is passes through a heat exchanger and is re-circulated again The function of this system is to reduce the friction between moving parts in order to reduce wear and tear of engine parts.

Design and construction are easier and less expensive. It can start quickly. Compared to other plants, it is having less maintenance. Here fuel handling and waste removal is very simple. Space requirement is less.

Also cooling water requirement is less than thermal or nuclear plant Disadvantages Life of diesel plant is comparatively less. Heavy noise generated from diesel engine. Lubrication cost is higher. It is not economical where fuel has to be imported. Air from atmosphere is enters into the compressor. During continuous operation the impurities and dust in the air deposits on the compressor blades.

This reduces the efficiency and output of the plant. The Air Filter in the Air Intake system prevents this. The compressor sucks in air form the atmosphere and compresses it to high pressures. This compressed air is enters to the combustion chamber.

The air from the compressor is the Combustion air. Burners arranged circumferentially on the combustion chamber control the fuel entry to the chamber. The fuel is mixed with compressed air and burns. The hot gases in the range of to C leave the chamber with high energy levels.

The chamber and the subsequent sections are made of special alloys and designs that can withstand this high temperature. The turbine does the main work of energy conversion.

The kinetic energy of the hot gases rotates the blades and the shaft. The exhaust gases then exit to atmosphere. The gas temperature leaving the Turbine is in the range of to C. The gas turbine shaft connects to the generator to produce electric power. Nuclear power plant Nuclear power is produced by controlled nuclear reactions nuclear fission.

Commercial and utility plants currently use nuclear fission reactions to heat water to produce steam, which is then used to generate electricity. The fission process occurs in a vessel called reactor.

The heat produced in the reactor is transferred to boiler Two types of reactor system commonly used for power generation. They are pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor. In PWR pressurized water reactor heat from the reactor is transferred to pressurized fluid which is passing through closed pipe line.

And water in the boiler is boiled using the heat from this pressurized water. In BWR boiling water reactor the heat from the reactor is directly used to boil the water.

Nuclear power plant is more economical compared with thermal plants where coal field is far away. Manpower requirement is less. Therefore cost of operation reduced.

Nuclear plant occupies less space than thermal power plant, which reduces the cost of civil construction Disadvantages Handling should be very careful. There is a danger of nuclear radiation. Disposing the radioactive waste is very difficult it has to be operated at full load throughout for good efficiency.

Fuels and their properties Fuels are chemical substances which may be burned in oxygen to generate heat. Energy stored in the fuel as chemical energy. By burning the fuel this energy can extract in the form of heat.

The fuels mainly consist of carbon and hydrogen and sometimes a small amount of sulphur or minerals. Fuels broadly classified into 1. Solid fuel: Liquid fuel: Gaseous fuel: Energy released from fuel by combustion, which is a redox reaction in which a combustible substance releases energy after it ignites and reacts with the oxygen in the air. Some Properties of fuels Calorific value: The calorific value of a fuel is the quantity of heat produced by its combustion at constant pressure and under "normal" conditions.

Calorific value of some fuels are given in the table below coal 17, 23, Butane 49, Charcoal 29, Diesel 44, Ethanol 29, petrol 47, Methane 55, Octane number is the measure of the ignition quality of petrol. An octane number is a number which reflects a fuel's resistance to knocking.

Knocking occurs when fuel combusts prematurely or explodes in an engine, causing a distinctive noise which resembles knocking, rattling, or pinging. Engine knock is undesired, as it can cause damage to the engine, and it indicates that the engine is not running as efficiently as it could be. Cetane number or CN is a measurement of the combustion quality of diesel fuel during compression ignition. Cetane number or CN is actually a measure of a fuel's ignition delay; the time period between the start of injection and start of combustion ignition of the fuel.

In a particular diesel engine, higher cetane fuels will have shorter ignition delay periods than lower cetane fuels. Generally, diesel engines run well with a CN from 40 to The flash point of a volatile liquid is the lowest temperature at which it can vaporize to form an ignitable mixture in air. The auto ignition temperature or kindling point of a substance is the lowest temperature at which it will spontaneously ignite in a normal atmosphere without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark.

This temperature is required to supply the activation energy needed for combustion. The pour point of a liquid is the lowest temperature at which it will pour or flow under prescribed conditions. If the temperature is lower than pour point fuel will gets freeze.

Coal Coal is our most abundant fossil fuel resource. Coal is a complex mixture of organic chemical substances containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in chemical combination, together with. Coal is a combustible black or brownishblack sedimentary rock normally occurring in rock strata in layers.

Coal, a fossil fuel, is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worldwide, as well as one of the largest worldwide Types of coal. Peat, considered to be a precursor of coal, has industrial importance as a fuel in some regions, Lignite, used almost exclusively as fuel for electric power generation.

Sub-bituminous coal, whose properties range from those of lignite to those of bituminous coal are used primarily as fuel for steam-electric power generation.

Bituminous coal, dense sedimentary rock, black but sometimes dark brown, and dull material, used primarily as fuel in steam-electric power generation, also used for making coke. Steam coal is a grade between bituminous coal and anthracite, once widely used as a fuel for steam locomotives Anthracite,: Some of these fuels are known as distilled fuels and some are known as residual fuel. The main property is in the form of higher calorific value and lower sulphur content in LSHS.

The main advantage in the use of LSHS lies in its low sulphur content. The life of equipment used is extended, since the corrosion is reduced very much. Apart from that, it is also advantageous from the environmental pollution point of view. Because it will emit lesser quantity of sulphur dioxide. So, the consumption of fuel oil will be reduced with the usage of LSHS. It is measured at OC.

FO Fuel Oil Fuel oil is a derivative from petroleum. There are two basic types of fueloil: Distillate fueloil lighter, thinner, better for cold-start and Residual fueloil heavier, thicker, more powerful, better lubrication. Often, some distillate is added to residual fuel oil to get a desired viscosity. They are only used for industrial and marine applications because, although fuel oil is cheaper than diesel oil, it is more difficult to handle must be settled, pre-heated and filtered, and leave a sludge at the bottom of the tanks.

References books balachandran basic mechanical

Distillate fuel oils are similar to diesel oil. Residual fuel oil consists of semi-liquid phase with dispersed solid or semi-solid particles. LNG Natural gas is a type of fossil fuel. It is found mainly in coal beds. During coal mining this gas comes out. This gas collected and stored in liquid state is known as liquefied natural gas.

Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas predominantly methane, CH4 that has been converted temporarily to liquid form for ease of storage or transport. Liquefied natural gas, or LNG, is natural gas that has been super cooled to minus degrees Celsius. At that temperature, natural gas condenses into a liquid. When in liquid form, natural gas takes up to times less space than in its gaseous state, which makes it feasible to transport over long distances.

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LNG is odourless, colourless, non-corrosive and non-toxic. Its weight is less than onehalf that of water. Natural gas is the worlds cleanest burning fossil fuel and it has emerged as the environmentally preferred fuel of choice. While both are stored forms of natural gas, the key difference is that CNG is gas that is stored as a gas at high pressure, while LNG is in uncompressed liquid form. Gas turbine requiring distillate fuels normally make use of HSD as fuel. Bio Fuel fuels which are derived from biomass is known as bio fuel.

In this solar energy transformed in to chemical energy by photosynthesis. Wood and agricultural residue etc are examples for biomass. Bio-diesel is a fatty acid of ethyl or methyl ester made from virgin or used vegetable oils both edible and non-edible and animal fats Biodiesel is made from vegetable and animal oils and fats. Biodiesel cannot be made from any other kinds of oil such as used engine oil.

Chemically, oils consist of three long-chain fatty acid molecules joined by a glycerine molecule. The glycerine sinks to the bottom and is removed. This process is called transesterification. Normally due to the cost benefit oil from seeds of jetropha plants are used for making bio diesel. Bio gas Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen.

Biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion or fermentation of biodegradable materials such as biomass, manure, sewage, municipal waste, green waste, plant material and energy crops. This type of biogas comprises primarily methane and carbon dioxide. The slurry mixture of biomass, waste etc is entering to the digester tank through the inlet pipe. The anaerobic digestion takes place in the digester tank see fig.

The remaining things containg nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium etc which can be used as a fertiliser. Bio gas mainly used for cooking and also used for electricity production.

Solar power plants Solar power plants converting solar light into electricity. Based on the conversion method we can classify solar power plants into solar photo voltaic and solar thermal power plants.

Solar photovoltaic power stations using the silicon photovoltaic cells for converting solar energy into electricity. Solar thermal power plants using concentrators made by mirror to focus the energy at a point. Solar cells are made up of semi-coductors that generate elelctricity on absorbing light. These cells made up of silicon. The electricity produced is stored in a battery. From this battery we will get DC out put.

Components of Solar photo voltaic Power Plant 1. Solar Panel: Electric System: Setting and controlling of transfer of electricity from the solar panel to the load Storing electric current generated by the solar panel before used to drive the load. Solar thermal power stations In this power plant, solar collector is a highly polished metallic surface of parabolic shape is used.

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The sun rays will be reflected towards the focal point of the parabola. At the focal point a tube is kept so that when the fluid is passed through a temperature rise from degree Celsius is obtained.

This hot fluid used to produce super heated high pressure steam in steam generator, which is used to run the turbine. In many applications instead of parabolic collector, a flat plate collector is used. This is mainly using in solar water heaters. Wind power plant wind turbine is a device that converts kinetic energy from the wind into mechanical energy. If the mechanical energy is used to produce electricity, the device may be called a wind generator or wind charger.

If the mechanical energy is used to drive machinery, such as for grinding grain or pumping water, the device is called a windmill or wind pump. There are two type of wind power plant: This mechanical energy transferred to the generator through a gear box. Most have a gearbox, which turns the slow rotation of the blades into a quicker rotation that is more suitable to drive an electrical generator Vertical-axis wind turbines or VAWTs have the main rotor shaft arranged vertically.

Key advantages of this arrangement are that the turbine does not need to be pointed into the wind to be effective. The key disadvantages include the low rotational speed with the consequential higher torque and hence higher cost of the drive train.

VAWT are of two type: Savonnius type and Darrieus type. In the picture Darrrieus type wind mill is shown. In this 3 blades are curved and attached to a hub on the vertical shaft.

Advantages of wind power plants are it freely available, non polluting. Unlike solar energy. No operator is required. Large areas are needed for installation. The cost of installation is high. These systems are noisy in operation. Tide is the periodic rise and fall of the sea water level due to the gravitation attraction of sun and moon.

When the water level of sea above the mean sea level it is called high tide. When the water level of is below the mean sea level it is called low tide. The difference in the levels of water during the high and low tide are utilized in operating hydraulic turbine. A dam is constructed between sea and tidal basin tidal basin is a body of water in an area subject to tides whose water level is maintained at a desired level by artificial means. During high tide water will flow through the turbine from sea to tidal basin.

So turbine will run and generator connected with this is generating the electricity.

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